Big Textbook Vote in Texas Today

| 51 Comments

The Texas State Board of Education is making the final votes today on their controversial social studies curriculum. This vote will have ramifications across the nations as most K–12 textbooks are written to appease the standards in Texas. The board members are not curriculum experts, but partisan politicians, and have produced a set of social studies standards that seeks to promote a sectarian political viewpoint. Some of you may remember their continual monkeying around with the science standards—no offense to actual monkeys. But it takes some some chutzpa to remove Thomas Jefferson from history standards.

Texas Freedom Network is following today’s events.

51 Comments

Board member Lawrence Allen summed it up nicely as reported by the TFN live blog:

“I don’t think we should sit here and think we have the capability to write standards.” There’s a difference, he says, between writing standards and approving standards. Other board members have good intentions, he says: “I just think they don’t know what they’re doing.”

Thanks to the Board, Texas school children will learn how Thomas Aquinas fought at the Alamo. Yee, ha!

votes made.

all fell right along party lines.

Texans lose.

*sigh*

Texas school children will learn how Thomas Aquinas fought at the Alamo. Yee, ha!

not far from wrong. evidently, they will be learning how Calvin was the prime motivator of the enlightenment, and Jefferson Davis was the one primarily responsible for the abolition of slavery.

Who was that “Lincoln” guy, anyway

:(

…oh, but hey, I think ‘ol Tommy Jefferson made it back in by the skin of his teeth.

I’m sure they figured the kids would confuse him with Jefferson Davis, or something.

This makes me glad that we kicked their asses at the battle of Glorietta.

Jesse said:

This makes me glad that we kicked their asses at the battle of Glorietta.

Sounds like a fellow Coloradan. I’ve got Texan friends so I should stay mum on that … and besides, while we may have Boulder here we also have Colorado Springs and the like, where similar mentalities are by no means unknown.

Reed,

It’s chutzpah, not chutzpa. But that’s just a slight error. More importantly that today is a sad day in Texan educational history. Hopefully other states won’t follow suit, but since Texas is a major purchaser of textbooks, I fear that this may have an adverse impact on the content of history textbooks around the country.

Sincerely,

John

what do people think will be the impact of California’s recent attempt to counter Texas?

MrG said:

Jesse said:

This makes me glad that we kicked their asses at the battle of Glorietta.

Sounds like a fellow Coloradan. I’ve got Texan friends so I should stay mum on that … and besides, while we may have Boulder here we also have Colorado Springs and the like, where similar mentalities are by no means unknown.

I live about 90 minutes south of Glorietta. There were New Mexicans in that battle too. The guy who introduced my parents to each other has reenacted the battle multiple times.

Oh, and if Texas wants to secede again, they can have Hobbs, Roswell, Lovington, Unice, Loving, etc… We keep Carlsbad and get the rest of the Guadalupe mountains in exchange.

I wonder how the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany will be treated? It, and the bombing of Pearl Harbor were the nails in the Axis’s coffin. I have no doubt Pearl Harbor will be adequitly handled, but what of the titanic tank battle at Kursk; the 900 day siege at Leningrad, the monumental struggle at Stalingrad; oh History, I shudder. After all, Stalin was the Communist Devil (I somewhat agree). To admit that the Nazis broke their back in Russia might be a step too far for these history denying wingnuts.

robert van bakel said:

I wonder how the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany will be treated? It, and the bombing of Pearl Harbor were the nails in the Axis’s coffin. I have no doubt Pearl Harbor will be adequitly handled, but what of the titanic tank battle at Kursk; the 900 day siege at Leningrad, the monumental struggle at Stalingrad; oh History, I shudder. After all, Stalin was the Communist Devil (I somewhat agree). To admit that the Nazis broke their back in Russia might be a step too far for these history denying wingnuts.

Don’t worry about this. There’s no way, any Texas history class makes it to WWII. Many just barely make it to the restoration after the civil war.

What actually happens is that the teachers (90% of them that is) spend the first semester teaching new material, then the second semester preparing students for the TAKS (or EOI). So much beyond the standards is a moot point.

Honestly, in spite of the huge amounts of idiocy at the state level in Texas, I don’t see much happening. Textbook adoptions for History are in 2012. There’s not much chance that any textbook publishers are going to rewrite books, supplementary materials, curriculum notes, etc. in less than 18 months (the adoption process starts in Jan-Feb and books are generally chosen in May). The next adoption wouldn’t be until at least 2020 (maybe even 2021).

I know a lot of Texas history teachers and they’re going to pretty much ignore the things that aren’t correct. Unlike some subjects, there’s just not as much controversy in Social Studies (at least according to those whose opinions I respect). So, they’ll pretty much teach history as reality versus the made up reality of the SBOE ‘consultants’.

Finally, I also know the people and process that write the tests that these students will take. There’s this department called ‘Fact Check’ and they are pretty serious. If there’s not a peer-reviewed scholarly article confirming a fact, then it’ll be sent back. The teachers are also involved in the process of the test questions and I don’t think they’ll let things just slide by. Also, it takes at least 24 months for test questions to go from first write to on an operational test.

So, While it makes my home state look like idiots (sigh), I really don’t think much will come of this. Hopefully, by the time, changes have a chance to be created, we will have a new board that knows what the hell it’s talking about. If not, I’ll just move to Iowa.

BTW: I was a Texas science teacher for 5 years and involved in the Biology adoption in 2003 (I think). Presently I work for the company that writes the TAKS, I don’t deal with the Texas project, but I am familiar with people and processes that are involved.

At least we know what the limits of human stupidity and dishonesty are. Add in some violence (not their bag, of course) and they’d be in history books - or dictionaries - themselves.

I can’t believe that the content of US textbooks and the subject matters covered in US schools is decided on by politicians. Everyone knows politicians care more about getting elected than doing the right thing, so that’s following partisan lines and screw the greater good.

*headshakes*

There isn’t much left to be proud of in the UK, and it might have serious flaws, but the National Curriculum is a damn good thing.

I hate to break it to you Coloradans but you’ve got another war with Texas coming up. Barry Arrington, ex-Texan, webmaster at Uncommon Descent and self-described as having “a proven track record of conservative activism, cutting taxes, fiscal conservatism, social conservatism and … an education reformer and passionately pro-life,” is running for the Colorado state Board of Education:

http://www.coloradostatesman.com/co[…]ee-districts

Lucky you! Arrington promises that pushing ID “is not on his agenda” so you don’t have to worry about that, given how honest IDers always are about their motives.

Am swamped now, but should have time after the Fourth of July. Would gladly help then to help ensure that IDiot’s defeat:

John Pieret said:

I hate to break it to you Coloradans but you’ve got another war with Texas coming up. Barry Arrington, ex-Texan, webmaster at Uncommon Descent and self-described as having “a proven track record of conservative activism, cutting taxes, fiscal conservatism, social conservatism and … an education reformer and passionately pro-life,” is running for the Colorado state Board of Education:

http://www.coloradostatesman.com/co[…]ee-districts

Lucky you! Arrington promises that pushing ID “is not on his agenda” so you don’t have to worry about that, given how honest IDers always are about their motives.

Man! History just cowers and craps in its pants when it meets Texas schoolbooks. Even their warehouse, Texas Schoolbooks Depository Building, in Dallas, TX changes history!

Natman said:

I can’t believe that the content of US textbooks and the subject matters covered in US schools is decided on by politicians.

The irony is that this system was put in place as an improvement over the old system, where local school boards chose educational materials and things were even worse.

It was thought that a centralized organization that had to at least take testimony from real educators and do it’s work in the open would be less likely to be really, really stupid than local school boards who had little background and were accountable only to the local pastor and the 200 flock members he would bring along to harrangue every meeting.

believe it or not, to some extent, it has actually worked. As horrible as it is, at least nobody is officially using the Bible as a book of actual factual reference in classes anymore (which was once known to happen quite officially and openly).

Everyone knows politicians care more about getting elected than doing the right thing, so that’s following partisan lines and screw the greater good.

Sadly, these politicians, at least do feel that they doing the right thing, controversy be damned, even though they know they’re going to loose their elections in November.

The chairman, Don Mcleroy, has lost his parties’ primary and won’t be on the ballot. He’s trying to do as much as he can before being forced out by the voters.

That’s one of the advantages of the British system. Loose an election there, and you’re gone. Not only that, but you guys can call an election whenever things get totally dysfunctional and thereby force a reboot. Here, elections take so long there’s still ample time for “lame ducks” to cause serious mischief.

stevaroni said: That’s one of the advantages of the British system. Loose an election there, and you’re gone. Not only that, but you guys can call an election whenever things get totally dysfunctional and thereby force a reboot. Here, elections take so long there’s still ample time for “lame ducks” to cause serious mischief.

We’d be having elections every three months.

As far as how accurate textbooks are, and “fact Checking” - I had occasion a few years ago to be in an area high school where I live in Indiana. I picked up a World History textbook off a teacher’s desk and opened it at random to a page that happened to deal with Roman history.

There, in a little colored box at the top of the page I learned that Julius Caesar was the first Emperor of the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.

I decided I must have passed into some kind of “Alternate Universe”…say, maybe that’s the problem? Texas exist in an Alternate Universe?

But I still wonder today how many students were taught that incorrect information about Julius Caesar, or did the teacher know enough to correct the error?

My bet is they didn’t, but that may just be the attitude of a grumpy old man fed up with stupidity.

One can only hope the new history, etc. is taught only as well as math, science and English are taught. I think textbooks should have mistakes, which can be pointed out and considered, to make the point that something printed (much less something posted on the Internet) should not necessarily be accepted at face value. I don’t think this is what the Texas revisionists had in mind.

Farcall said: But I still wonder today how many students were taught that incorrect information about Julius Caesar, or did the teacher know enough to correct the error?

Which recalls to me the time the professor (this was in a college class) said that the textbook was wrong, and a student objected: “If it was wrong, why did they let it be printed?”

OgreMkV said:

We’d be having elections every three months.

Eh. We already have perpetual campaigns anyhow.

Doc Bill said:

Thanks to the Board, Texas school children will learn how Thomas Aquinas fought at the Alamo. Yee, ha!

Um… I don’t think so. Baptists don’t cotton much to them Catholic saints.

Jesse said:

MrG said:

Jesse said:

This makes me glad that we kicked their asses at the battle of Glorietta.

Sounds like a fellow Coloradan. I’ve got Texan friends so I should stay mum on that … and besides, while we may have Boulder here we also have Colorado Springs and the like, where similar mentalities are by no means unknown.

I live about 90 minutes south of Glorietta. There were New Mexicans in that battle too. The guy who introduced my parents to each other has reenacted the battle multiple times.

Oh, and if Texas wants to secede again, they can have Hobbs, Roswell, Lovington, Unice, Loving, etc… We keep Carlsbad and get the rest of the Guadalupe mountains in exchange.

now be honest, we have to give up red river and ruidoso also.

nmgirl said:

Jesse said:

MrG said:

Jesse said:

This makes me glad that we kicked their asses at the battle of Glorietta.

Sounds like a fellow Coloradan. I’ve got Texan friends so I should stay mum on that … and besides, while we may have Boulder here we also have Colorado Springs and the like, where similar mentalities are by no means unknown.

I live about 90 minutes south of Glorietta. There were New Mexicans in that battle too. The guy who introduced my parents to each other has reenacted the battle multiple times.

Oh, and if Texas wants to secede again, they can have Hobbs, Roswell, Lovington, Unice, Loving, etc… We keep Carlsbad and get the rest of the Guadalupe mountains in exchange.

now be honest, we have to give up red river and ruidoso also.

No. The Texans are welcome to go spend their money there as tourists who go home, but those places are in the mountains. Texans do not need mountains. The ones who live there will have to either adopt NM ways, including not gringocizing the green chile, or they will have to leave.

Harvey Klehr was in the Soviet Union when it fell. A center left historian Harvey was innvited by Yeltsin to view the KGB documents that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism. One for One with Venona content. Glenn Beck is conducting a wonderful set of history lessons every friday on his TV show. Learn some history and lose you progressive values.

arigg said:

Harvey Klehr was in the Soviet Union when it fell. A center left historian Harvey was innvited by Yeltsin to view the KGB documents that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism. One for One with Venona content. Glenn Beck is conducting a wonderful set of history lessons every friday on his TV show. Learn some history and lose you progressive values.

<sarcasm>
What a wonderful disconnect! We are clearly all communists and communism is bad, therefore anything that we believe must be wrong! You have opened my eyes!
</sarcasm>

Except that I don’t fit the description of communist. I am further from it than most Republicans. And that has nothing to do with whether what is being taught in Texas history classes is consistent with primary documents on the topic(s). I know this is hard for you to swallow, but progressives can, on occasion, have their facts straight. Just so that you know, having the facts straight in a history class is something that should be a goal.

It also has nothing to do with whether or not a complete picture of history is going to be taught in Texas history classes. A relatively complete picture that includes both the good and the bad should also be a goal.

Try learning the difference between politics and fact. I know, that line has been blurred lately, but you’ll be better off in the long run.

Jesse said:

<sarcasm>
What a wonderful disconnect! We are clearly all communists and communism is bad, therefore anything that we believe must be wrong! You have opened my eyes!
</sarcasm>

I find myself bumping more and more into the Tea Party fringe these days. Not the “Hey - what are we going to do about this giant deficit” types, but the real black helicopter / new world order / tinfoil hat crowd.

They invariably try to convince me that Obama is a socialist. To which I always ask “Well, first, define ‘socialism’ and how have his actions so far advanced those goals?”

So far this year exactly one person has cogently defined socialism, though he was unable to apply it to part B of the question.

On the plus side, that’s one more person than was able to tell me what the 2nd law of thermodynamics actually said after telling me that evolution violates it, but those people are, admittedly, a smaller sample size and one I’m much less likely to run into with a table full of pamphlets outside the Post Office.

If there really was a God and this really was a kind and just world, there would be an 11th commandment “Thou shalt not talk about thing you don’t know about”.

Or maybe a magic spray that made it stop. Now that would be worth a Nobel any day.

”…the real black helicopter / new world order / tinfoil hat crowd.”

Racism. Simple, thinly disguised (sometimes) racism.

There was no Tea Party when there were other DemocratIC presidents. These people weren’t organized and foaming at the mouth about “socialism,” “taking my guns away’” “President = Hitler” until we elected a president with an African father.

Ask yourself this: Suppose we had elected a Democrat as president, with EXACTLY the same family history as Barack Obama (born in Hawaii, father deserted, etc.), and exactly the same politics and stated goals and policies… BUT instead of Kenyan his father was Swedish and his last name was Halvorsen! Would there be “birthers”? Would there be a Tea Party at all?

He would have political opponents, of course, but nothing like this insanity.

Glenn Beck is an insane demagogue who can’t even spell “oligarchy” when he’s using it as the centerpiece of a huge whine. He’s a fraud who babbles about sincerity while crying fake tears. He screams “Nazi” every chance he gets, while having the total lack of self awareness to criticize OTHERS for Nazi comparisons, but he never dares criticize his own party’s slide toward actual facism. He’s not in any way qualified to teach anyone anything, definitely not history.

arigg said:

Harvey Klehr was in the Soviet Union when it fell. A center left historian Harvey was innvited by Yeltsin to view the KGB documents that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism. One for One with Venona content. Glenn Beck is conducting a wonderful set of history lessons every friday on his TV show. Learn some history and lose you progressive values.

The TP is a strange beast indeed. You have your tinfoil hat black chopper types. I hate conspiracy theory people with a passion. If you show up with a conspiracy theory and you don’t want me to think that you are lower than whale shit on the bottom of the ocean, you had better have some real evidence to back it up. Or not really be serious. Stupidity or malice are almost always a much better explanation for bad events that transpire.

You also have the religious right trying to take over the TP. The fundamentalists are losing their political grip and the religious right sees the TP as a convenient vehicle to maintain power. If they are successful, the TP will fall apart.

Then you have the genuine “WTF is happening and WTF are we going to experience hyperinflation” types. If the TP survives, they are the ones you want steering the ship. They are going to be the most open to reason and discussion.

stevaroni said:

If there really was a God and this really was a kind and just world, there would be an 11th commandment “Thou shalt not talk about thing you don’t know about”.

Or maybe a magic spray that made it stop. Now that would be worth a Nobel any day.

Actually there is… it’s called “mace”. Unfortunately, it’s only a very temporary solution.

And I understand your frustration. Living in Kentucky I get to look forward to Rand Paul as my next senator and his agenda of rolling back the protections and rights of many of the folks who will vote for him, under the guise of bringing us back from the brink of socialism.

Apparently I am one Republican who doesn’t quite see eye-to-eye with your observation (even if I agree with some of it):

arigg said:

Harvey Klehr was in the Soviet Union when it fell. A center left historian Harvey was innvited by Yeltsin to view the KGB documents that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism. One for One with Venona content. Glenn Beck is conducting a wonderful set of history lessons every friday on his TV show. Learn some history and lose you progressive values.

Why should anyone care about them when Texas has opted to minimize the importance of Enlightenment thought (especially when that was responsible for the thinking which led to the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution) or the relevance of Thomas Jefferson’s thinking as expressed in his eloquent words, toward the birth of this very democratic republic?

arigg said:

Harvey Klehr was in the Soviet Union when it fell. A center left historian Harvey was innvited by Yeltsin to view the KGB documents that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism. One for One with Venona content. Glenn Beck is conducting a wonderful set of history lessons every friday on his TV show. Learn some history and lose you progressive values.

Another right-wing idiot. Do you see us promoting Communism or even Progressive politics here? No, we merely object to lies promoting a political agenda. Being objective means we REJECT right wing extremism, but that does not make us leftists automatically.

Isn’t it sad that American right-wingers now use the word “progress” as though it were dirty and wrong?

arigg said:

… that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism.

just what the hell is materialistic communism supposed to be? Isn’t the idea of the commune that nobody owns anything? How can you be materialistic when you’ve got nothing?

This conversation would be so much easier if the right-wing nut-jobs would all go out any buy dictionaries.

There’s probably plenty of room for one between the Bible and the collected memoirs of Barry Goldwater on the 0otherwise empty bookshelf.

When this has happened in the past, the general population has woken up to kick out the nutters. What are the options if the reasonable Texans wake up to discover that they are yet again a laughing stock?

stevaroni said:

arigg said:

… that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism.

just what the hell is materialistic communism supposed to be? Isn’t the idea of the commune that nobody owns anything? How can you be materialistic when you’ve got nothing?

When anti-evolutionists and other religious anti-science idiots use the term “materialistic,” they mean “anything we think is probably anti-Christian”

This conversation would be so much easier if the right-wing nut-jobs would all go out any buy dictionaries.

That’s against their religion.

stevaroni said:

Jesse said:

<sarcasm>
What a wonderful disconnect! We are clearly all communists and communism is bad, therefore anything that we believe must be wrong! You have opened my eyes!
</sarcasm>

I find myself bumping more and more into the Tea Party fringe these days. Not the “Hey - what are we going to do about this giant deficit” types, but the real black helicopter / new world order / tinfoil hat crowd.

They invariably try to convince me that Obama is a socialist. To which I always ask “Well, first, define ‘socialism’ and how have his actions so far advanced those goals?”

So far this year exactly one person has cogently defined socialism, though he was unable to apply it to part B of the question.

On the plus side, that’s one more person than was able to tell me what the 2nd law of thermodynamics actually said after telling me that evolution violates it, but those people are, admittedly, a smaller sample size and one I’m much less likely to run into with a table full of pamphlets outside the Post Office.

If there really was a God and this really was a kind and just world, there would be an 11th commandment “Thou shalt not talk about thing you don’t know about”.

Or maybe a magic spray that made it stop. Now that would be worth a Nobel any day.

Oh yes, the old proverb applies. It goes something like this:

It is better to be silent and be called a fool then to open your mouth and remove all doubt.

I’m amazed at the ignorance I hear coming from people recently. With this “new history”, I’m grateful that I’m paying for a private education for my children. I know I shouldn’t ask but how much “kookier” can things get!

Unfortunately those right-wing wingnuts wouldn’t even give Goldwater a penny’s worth of their time, especially when he warned the Right of the potential danger of associating itself with the Fundamentalist Christian “Right” back in 1981:

stevaroni said:

arigg said:

… that demonstrate massive extent to which all of you leftists here have your attitudes skewed by materialistic communism.

just what the hell is materialistic communism supposed to be? Isn’t the idea of the commune that nobody owns anything? How can you be materialistic when you’ve got nothing?

This conversation would be so much easier if the right-wing nut-jobs would all go out any buy dictionaries.

There’s probably plenty of room for one between the Bible and the collected memoirs of Barry Goldwater on the 0otherwise empty bookshelf.

I plead guilty. I am a materialistic Deistic Conservative Republican with very, very pronounced Libertarian leanings who recognizes Charles Darwin and Alfred R. Wallace as my Saints Peter and Paul, along with such notable “saints” like Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson, Julian Huxley, and, for the sake of inclusiveness, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Robert MacArthur and Stephen Jay Gould.

Michael J said:

When this has happened in the past, the general population has woken up to kick out the nutters. What are the options if the reasonable Texans wake up to discover that they are yet again a laughing stock?

Very slim, since the nutcases are Republicans and Texas has become a very Republican state. But it was also crappy when Democrats totally dominated it for nearly a century.

Dale Husband said:

Michael J said:

When this has happened in the past, the general population has woken up to kick out the nutters. What are the options if the reasonable Texans wake up to discover that they are yet again a laughing stock?

Very slim, since the nutcases are Republicans and Texas has become a very Republican state. But it was also crappy when Democrats totally dominated it for nearly a century.

McElroy got kicked out. I’m wondering if history is going to repeat itself

What’s with the assumption that socialism = communism?

It seems thrown around a lot by certain aspects of American politics, but there’s 60 years of European history that shows that socialism =/= communism. And if anything, communism is the ultimate conservatism. Nothing stagnates things more (or retains traditional values, if you want to be semantic) than levelling the playing field and keeping everyone the same. If the biological world was of a communal nature then it would eliminate one of the driving forces behind evolution (to bring things back to more relevant topic).

and, for the sake of inclusiveness, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Robert MacArthur and Stephen Jay Gould

I’m going to tell Ken Miller you failed to drop his name in this list.

It’s obvious you don’t love him any more.

Little Lord McLeroy was defeated in the Republican primary by a conservative but rational Christian Republican. Cynthia Dunbar, one of the other religious regressives, decided not to run and picked an annointed successor who was also beaten in the primary. There is hope for Texas’ future, but it didn’t come soon enough to stave off this nutty set of education standards. TFN is trying to see that these standards are not implemented in the way the zealots intended. With some help, I believe they can.

Just to be clear - not everyone in Texas is a right-wing ideologue. Progressives have had a strong, vital role in the political discourse of Texas for many years. Ralph Yarborough, LBJ, Ann Richards, Molly Ivens, Jim Hightower and many others have championed a free, well-educated Texas.

AND for our friends in far West Texas (sometimes known as New Mexico), remember that Texas still holds the deed to everything east of The Rio Grande.

From the letters to the editor section in today’s Austin-American Statesman. Now why didn’t I think of that?

II + II = IV

Now that the State Board of Education has purged Satan from the science and history standards, it’s time for them to straighten out math.

Our students are still being taught to cipher with Arabic numerals. We don’t need Mohammed to tell us how to add two and two.

If Roman numerals were good enough for Christ, they’re good enough for the little peasants who attend public schools in Texas.

Hugh Lowe

Austin

Well, at least with Roman numerals you can’t get a zero on a math test…

Henry J said:

Well, at least with Roman numerals you can’t get a zero on a math test…

yeah, that’s always struck me as kinda weird. Without zero how did Romans ever balance their book-keeping?

Natman said:

What’s with the assumption that socialism = communism?

It seems thrown around a lot by certain aspects of American politics, but there’s 60 years of European history that shows that socialism =/= communism.

I find that very interesting/disturbing, too, depending on how you look at it. Cases can be made against socialism, sure, but people can equate it with communism just boggles my mind.

And to be perfectly fair, even Marx’ “Communism” is very far from Stalin and Mao’s…

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This page contains a single entry by Reed A. Cartwright published on May 21, 2010 4:52 PM.

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